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Scientists use sound to unlock the secrets of our planet



TueAvs collapse. Tree branches vibrate. Mosquitoes are buzzing. These phenomena occur every day, but not everyone necessarily hears them. Indeed, some sounds occur in places that are difficult for humans to reach or are below the level of what we can perceive. But more and more scientists are listening to them.

From root systems up to 90 feet underground to balloons hovering 70,000 feet above ground, this week experts showcase a series of recent sonic ideas gathered at the Acoustic Society of America’s annual conference. New data obtained from these sounds is helping scientists better understand the natural world.

For example, last year researchers discovered that climate change is accelerating sound transmission in the ocean, with potential implications for marine life. Most recently, in March, research published in Nature showed how the pandemic reduced noise from ships in the deep ocean, reducing the amount of human-induced disturbance to the marine environment’s own soundscape that animals rely on. and this summer ecologist’s plan monitor how Alaska’s remote wilderness is responding to climate change and industry; they will do this by listening to birds chirping and beetles buzzing to analyze their numbers and activity patterns.

It’s “an opportunity to really listen to the new world,” says Daniel Bowman, senior scientist at Sandia National Laboratories, the Department of Energy’s National Security and Technology Laboratory, adding that this type of research provides “another perspective on sound.” from a different point of view”—in his case, miles above the ground.

Stratospheric Symphony

In a layer of our atmosphere much higher, where commercial aircraft soar, a group of scientists, including Bowman, are releasing balloons to record otherwise inaudible sounds from a relatively quiet region of our sky. Using low-frequency microbarometers, they were able to determine how the ground sounds from this height, from thunderstorms to wind turbines to freight trains.

For 19 days entry demonstrated at the conference, you can hear a calm, wind-like whistle, punctuated by crackles and pulsations. This whistle is the sound of waves crashing against each other in the middle of the ocean. “You listen to the ocean below crash into itself and create a signal that travels up, passes the balloon, and actually heats up the upper atmosphere as the sound wave dissipates,” explains Bowman. In other words, the record measures how the ocean changes energy patterns at 60 miles in the sky. “All these really amazing things are happening,” he says. “It never occurred to me that this was happening, and then, from this new perspective, we can actually measure it directly.”

Researchers inflate a solar-powered balloon equipped with an infrasonic microbarometer.

Dariel Dexheimer – Sandia National Laboratories

Bowman hopes to use his findings to inspire others, whether a science student or a professional researcher, to conduct similar experiments to better understand this little-studied region of our sky. The balloons used in his project are cheap, with $50 worth of materials, and easy to build, and can be used not only for recording acoustics, but for things like aerial photography or measuring greenhouse lanes. (His experiment is also part of a proof-of-concept with NASA to study seismic activity on Venus.)

“We haven’t explored every corner of the stratosphere,” he says, “so there are still prizes for us.”

The sound of tree roots

There may also be many new ones to discover underground.

The largest tree in the world by weight and land area grows in southern Utah. Known as Pando, the 9,000-year-old aspen grove is a unique organism made up of over 47,000 genetically identical trees. As a detailed presentation at the conference, the non-profit organization Friends of Pando used hydrophones, underwater microphones, to record what is believed to be the vibration transmitted through Pando’s root system during a thunderstorm.

“It looks like two cans connected with a rope. Except there are 47,000 cans connected by a huge root system,” sound engineer Jeff Rice, who works with the nonprofit, said in a statement. The rustle of leaves in the wind made the hydrophone pick up underground signals – the more the leaves and branches shook, the stronger the signal.

“While it started as an art, we see huge potential for use in science,” said Lance Oditt, executive director of the nonprofit. “Wind converted into vibration (sound) and moving through the root system can also non-destructively reveal the inner workings of Pando’s vast hidden hydraulic system.” The group hopes to use the data from these records to study water movement, insect colonies and root depth, among other things.

However, the artistic interpretation of nature sounds is itself another valuable way of making sense of the world we live in. For example, a song based on percussion was also presented at the conference this week. interpretation of 120 years of oil drilling in the ocean. And this trend goes beyond the walls of the conference. British musician album Cosmo Sheldrake released last month, uses a cacophony of underwater recordings as the basis for its songs, from the singing of humpback whales and the splashing of coral reefs to a rare recording of Britain’s last remaining killer whales threatened by chemical pollution. Meanwhile, a group of UC Berkeley graduate students in 2018 turned a century-long rise in temperature into original musical composition.

Sound is a powerful feeling. Rain and splashing waves can calm us down. The sirens send us warnings. And just a snippet from the chorus of a song can bring back lost memories. By uncovering previously inaccessible sounds, scientists are now connecting us more closely than ever to the world around us. And by turning data into music, artists can help us reimagine a potentially abstract science. Together, this can make us think and feel differently about the wonders of nature and our impact on the planet.

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Which European countries are winning the heat pump race?



Andreas Rosen did not want to leave oil-based heating systems for the next generation

When Andreas Rosen decided to secure the future of his home in Germany’s Moselle wine region, he knew he wanted to upgrade his heating system to a low-carbon heat pump.

“I didn’t want to pass it on to the next generation with an oil system,” says Mr. Rosen. “We wondered what we should do in the long term, and now [a heat pump] was done with the help of the government.

About half of Germany’s 41 million homes currently use gas heating, and another quarter run on oil. In an effort to encourage homeowners to decarbonize their heating, Germany introduced a rebate scheme in January 2023 that offers up to 40% cashback on the purchase and installation of a heat pump.

Heat pumps use energy from air, water or the earth for heating and cooling. They have been proven to work even in extreme temperatures and can significantly reduce energy bills once installed.

The diagram is just one of many subsidies for heat pumps operates throughout Europe and is part of a wider campaign to reduce carbon emissions. From 2024, every new heating system installed in Germany must run on 65% renewable energy.

Bastian Distler, product manager at Ketsch in southwest Germany, was considering switching to a heat pump anyway for environmental reasons, but admits that without the subsidy he could not have done so. Buying and installing can cost between €10,000 and €30,000 (£8,700 to £26,000; $11,000 to $33,000), compared to about €7,000 for a new gas boiler.

“I have two small children, which makes you doubt some things, and you feel better if you do something good for the environment. But, to be very honest, if it was very, very expensive and didn’t pay off, I probably would have done it. didn’t do it,” says Mr. Distler.

While the scheme certainly makes it easier for Germans to invest in modernizing their heating system, sales of heat pumps were already on the rise.

“Our market grew by 53% last year,” says Martin Zabel, Managing Director of the German Heat Pump Association. “A year earlier it was about 30%, and a year earlier it was about 40%. Thus, we have seen good growth rates for several years now.”

The surge in demand has taken many manufacturers by surprise, causing some homeowners to wait up to 10 months before their new heat pumps can be delivered and installed by skilled workers, who are also in short supply.

Companies such as Germany’s Viessman are expanding production.

Manufacturers like Viessmann are scaling up production to address shortages, as well as investing heavily in training installers, providing educational materials to potential buyers and helping customers navigate often complex subsidy applications.

Günther Schlachter, Viessmann’s vice president of residential power solutions, believes that support and training for installers is the key to decarbonizing home heating.

“Our installer… can consult with his customers [and advise against] the cheapest option for gas or oil to use the subsidies now in place for a future-oriented solution,” says Mr. Schlachter.

Jürgen Fischer, President of Danfoss Climate Solutions, agrees. “Typically, installers focus on gas. For a heat pump, they also need to understand electrical and refrigeration. So it’s important to educate the end user, but it’s even more important to educate the person selling the system, because 80% of the decision-making process happens with the installer.”

Most European countries currently face the same supply, installer training and cost issues, but geography and culture also greatly influence what we expect and demand from our heating systems.

Homes with better thermal insulation are more suitable for heat pump systems, which produce water at lower temperatures for a central heating system. Trying to heat a poorly insulated home with a heat pump will be difficult and unlikely to save you much money.

More business technologies:

So it’s perhaps not surprising that the coldest countries in Europe with the best insulation have the highest heat pump penetration. According to the International Energy Agency60% of buildings in Norway are equipped with a heat pump, followed by Sweden (43%) and Finland (41%).

In Germany this figure is just over 4%, while in the UK it is only 1%.

“Scandinavia is a lot more advanced because they have higher insulation standards and they switched from direct electric heating to heat pumps early because it saved them from day one,” says Thomas Nowak, general secretary of the European Heat Pump Association.

Central Europeans also tend to have high hopes for heating and insulation, while UK residents have long resigned themselves to the need for draft protection devices and massive internal lintels.

Southern countries tend to forgo heating in favor of cooling and use flowing gas boilers to heat water, while Eastern Europeans often rely on solid fuel stoves.

Installing the heat pump outside

Lack of skilled workers to install heat pumps

No matter where you live or how old your building is, there is an easy way to find out if your home is suitable for a heat pump.

If you can feel comfortable at home when the flow temperature on your boiler drops to 55°C, then you can install the heat pump right away without retrofitting or upgrading the insulation.

Of course, not everyone can choose how to heat their home. Germany has one of the lowest home ownership rates in Europe, meaning landlords and home management companies must upgrade their heating systems to serve the country’s roughly 40 million tenants.

The German Heat Pump Association is seeing home providers starting to realize that decarbonization will soon begin to affect their bottom line.

“They have a goal to decarbonize their housing stock, because they understand that if they don’t, then in 10 or 20 years they will no longer be able to rent out these apartments,” says Martin Sabel.

Renters who would rather take matters into their own hands may soon have access to smaller-scale heat pump solutions for heating and cooling individual rooms.

American startup Gradient hopes to enter the European market in 2023 and is working on making small, affordable, self-installing heat pumps that sit on window sills and can replace existing air conditioners.

For Viessmann, the long-term vision is to create a holistic, low-carbon, low-cost energy system in which heat pumps, high-quality insulation, solar power, waste heat redirection, other renewable energy sources and smart technologies work in tandem to provide a circular heating and cooling system, vehicle charging and meeting the other energy needs of homeowners and their wider community.

Germany is still a long way from that, but heat pumps are a good step along the way. When asked what homeowners should bring home about heat pumps, Thomas Nowak has a simple answer.

“They work. That’s all. Don’t trust anyone who tells you it’s not.”

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Steel built the Rust Belt. Green steel could help restore it.



In the Mon Valley of western Pennsylvania, steel was once a way of life, one synonymous with the image of rural working communities in the Rust Belt. At its peak in 1910 Pittsburgh one produced 25 million tons, or 60 percent of the country’s total. Busy factories remain along the Monongahela River and around Pittsburgh, but employment has steadily declined for decades.

While President Trump has vowed to return to the idealized vision of American steelmaking that Bruce Springsteen could sing about, the industry has changed since its initial decline four decades ago. Jobs fell by 49 percent between 1990 and 2021, when efficiency gains pushed the sector to its highest capacity in 14 years. Despite ongoing supply chain disruptions and inflation, demand persists growing all over the world, especially in Asia. But even as the demand for this important material grows, so does the need to decarburize its production.

Earlier this month, the Ohio Valley Progressive Institute released study who found that a carefully planned transition to “green” steel, made with renewable energy-generated hydrogen, could be a climate and economic boon. It argues that as countries work towards achieving zero emissions by 2050, a green steel boom in western Pennsylvania could help the US achieve that goal, make its steel industry competitive again, and hire a well-paid industrial workforce.

“A shift to fossil-fuel-free steel production could increase the total number of jobs supported by steel production in the region by 27% to 43% by 2031, preventing projected job losses,” the study notes. “Over the same period, the number of jobs in regions supported by traditional steel production is expected to fall by 30 percent.”

In a world struggling to keep global climate change below 1.5 degrees Celsius (2.7 degrees Fahrenheit), the traditional coke-based steelmaking process that uses coal to power furnaces that smelt iron ore remains big. problem. Industry generates 7.2 percent of all carbon emissions worldwide, making it more polluting than the whole European Union. Old-school steel production depends on metallurgical coal, which is high-quality, low-moisture coal that still releases carbon, sulfur dioxide, and other pollutants. About 70 percent of today’s steel is made this way, much of it produced cheaply in countries with lax environmental laws. However, only 30 percent of US manufacturing uses this method.

Technological improvements and the desire to reduce emissions have led to an increase in the use of leftover or “scrap” steel in the manufacturing process. When conventional coke steel products reach the end of their service life, they can be returned to the furnace and recycled. almost endlessly. This reduces the labor required to produce the same quantity and quality of steel as traditional production methods and accounts for about 70 percent of national production.

Scrap melts into electric arc furnace and uses hydrogen, not coke, to process iron ore. This requires less energy than traditional methods, especially if renewables power the furnace and produce hydrogen. Nick Messenger, an economist who worked on the Institute’s study, believes that such an approach could revitalize the Rust Belt by placing the region at the forefront of innovation that the industry must inevitably embrace.

“What we’re actually showing is that by doing this three-step process and doing it all close to home in Pennsylvania,” he said, “every step in this process can create jobs and sustain jobs in the community.” the creation and operation of solar panels and turbines, the operation of electrolyzers for the production of electricity and the production of steel itself.

Blast furnace at a steel plant in Salzgitter, Germany.

The study argues that the inertial approach will be in line with current production and employment trends, resulting in a 30 percent job loss by 2031. as much as 43 percent. The study calls western Pennsylvania an ideal place for this transition, given its proximity to clean water, an experienced workforce, and 22,200 watts of wind and solar power potential.

The study notes that for this to work for Mon Valley, growers need to get going as soon as possible. The search for green steel is not only an ideological issue, but also a matter of global economic power. “In a sense, there is a huge new race to get to the first floor,” Messenger said. “When you are first, you attract the types of capital, you attract the types of businesses, entrepreneurs and industries that are causing such a thriving boom around that particular sector.”

The legendary steel mills of the Ohio Valley may be cautious about a carbon-free future. Two years ago US Steel canceled a $1.3 billion investment in the Mon Valley Works complex, citing in part its zero net income goals and the need to shift to arc-welded steel production. Of course, the biggest problem is that although the Mon Valley has huge potential for wind energy, very little is being used. But thanks to the Inflation Reduction Act, federal subsidies and tax breaks could give clean energy developers a boost.

The Biden administration has demonstrated faith in green steel through a series of grant, subsidy, and tax credit programs, including $6 billion in the Inflation Reduction Act to decarbonize heavy industry. But Europe has an advantage. Nascent projects the European Union is dotted in Sweden, Germany and Spain, followed by the UK. Some use hydrogen, but others are experimenting with biochar, electrolysis, or other ways to power the arc process.

In the United States, Boston Metal is experimenting with an oxide electrolysis model, hoping to make the US a leader in green steel technology. This model eliminates demand for coal, creating a chemical reaction that mimics the reaction that turns iron ore into steel. The company is in the process of licensing the process to steelmakers, and Adam Rauwerdinck, the company’s senior vice president of business development, hopes to see its first user by 2026.

Rauwerdinck believes the world is moving away from traditional steelmaking and that US companies will play catch-up if they don’t adapt. Over the past five years, he has seen more and more companies and investors join us, including ArcelorMittal, the world’s second largest steelmaker. He invested $36 million at Boston Metal this year. He believes the investment is a clear sign that the race for green steel has begun and it’s time for manufacturers to embrace the technology – or be left behind.

“Historically, you could build a steel mill next to a coal mine,” he said. “Now you’re going to build it where you have clean energy.”

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Australia News Live: Labor convicted of endorsing coal mine; army commander defends shake-up in defense | australia news



With trade minister Don Farrell arriving in China for talks aimed at lifting trade sanctions, Beijing’s foreign affairs spokesman, Wang Wenbin, was asked by journalists about the visit at the daily media conference overnight.


Wang said Australia and China were both important countries in the Asia-Pacific with “highly complementary economies and mutually beneficial business ties”.


He added that China “stands ready to work together with Australia to deliver on the important common understandings reached by our leaders, build mutual trust, deepen cooperation, properly handle differences and work for the sustained, sound and steady development of bilateral relations”:



To improve and maintain the sound growth of bilateral ties serves the fundamental interests of both countries and peoples … the two sides may be able to find a balanced way to resolve each other’s concerns on economic and trade issues through constructive consultation to the benefit of both peoples.


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The chief of the army has promised to “execute the mission we’ve been given” amid political controversy over the government’s cuts to infantry fighting vehicles.


Lt Gen Simon Stuart said the army was “absolutely on the right trajectory” and would faithfully implement the government’s “very clear direction” in the wake of the defence strategic review.


Instead of buying up to 450 infantry fighting vehicles at a cost of up to $27bn, the government will acquire just 129 as part of a shift in priorities.


The opposition leader, Peter Dutton, used his budget reply speech last night to say the decision “leaves our troops and our new strike forces more vulnerable and lowers morale”.


Speaking to reporters at defence headquarters in Canberra late yesterday, Stuart said he was “really encouraged by the trajectory” of the army’s modernisation, even as he acknowledged a change in direction:



Looking at the changes in our strategic environment, and understanding the changes that we would need to make to our force structure and our capabilities, they’re a little different to the trajectory we were on.



Stuart pointed other gains for the army – including long-range precision strike capability and a greater capacity to operate in coastal areas – as a result of the strategic review:



To your point about the part of the army that can engage in close combat on the land and among populations – the combined arms fighting system – if you look at the capability that we will very soon be able to field, it’s world-class and is a significantly greater capability than we’ve had in the history of the Australian army.


So I’m pretty encouraged in terms of where the opportunities are. And we are very, very focused on executing the mission we’ve been given.


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Good morning and welcome to another day of news live blogging. I’m Martin Farrer and I’m here to bring you the main overnight lines before my colleague Natasha May comes along.


The Albanese government is having a mighty stoush with the Greens over the housing bill and there’s not going to be much love lost over its approval of a coalmine development in Queensland’s Bowen Basin. Tanya Plibersek has indicated that she’s going to give the Isaac River scheme the green light – the first such approval since Labor won power – bringing widespread criticism from environmental activists.


We also have a terrific story about how management consultants have advised aged care providers to exploit the system by considering which residents generate “higher profit margins” and urged them to “get your money now” before new regulations are introduced. Mirus Australia warn reclassifying residents to reflect their deteriorating health, which would result in more mandated care minutes, could hurt a provider’s budget bottom line as increased subsidies won’t cover costs.


Peter Dutton used his budget reply to criticise reforms of the ADF, among other things, but the chief of the army has promised to “execute the mission we’ve been given” amid political controversy over the government’s cuts to infantry fighting vehicles. Lt Gen Simon Stuart says the army is “absolutely on the right trajectory” and will faithfully implement the government’s “very clear direction” in the wake of the defence strategic review.


We also can’t ignore the Eurovision sing-off now going on in Liverpool. Will Australia’s entry by the Perth band Voyager win through to the final? It’s all down to an incredibly convoluted voting system, naturally.

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key events

opposition leader, Peter Duttonlast night promised to permanently increase the number of sleeping psychological sessions from 10 to 20.

Butler continues to defend the decision of the Albanian government not to renew the funding introduced by the Morrison government during the pandemic.

He insists that the problem with the measure is that it “always cut a lot of people out of the system and didn’t cater for people with complex needs.”

Butler says increased Medicare benefits will help all patients

An unexpected centerpiece of the budget was a $5.7 billion increase in Medicare funding, including incentives to improve bulk billing for children and concession card holders.

Minister of Health Mark Butlersays the government will also serve those people who are not eligible for the mass billing plan.

He told ABC radio:

Discounts are not frozen, every discount on MBS [Medicare Benefits Schedule] next year will increase – the biggest increase in Medicare across the board – of every single service, for every Australian.

Eurovision fans rejoice, Australia reached the final…

Hume weighs in on Deeming’s defamation claim

Victorian Liberal MPs will meet for the second time today to decide Moira Deeming kicked out of their party room.

Humeone of the most senior Victorian liberals, basically says she’ll leave the decision in the state party room.

But she does say that Deeming sent a defamation violation notice to the party leader: John Pesutto:

I don’t think this is what we would do in a parliamentary team at the federal level.

If you’re still confused by this whole saga, Benita Kolovos you covered:

Hume says coalition will negotiate with Labor to reverse surge in job seekers

Dutton It was announced last night that the Coalition will withdraw its support for the government’s $40 biweekly increase in job seekers and instead encourage welfare recipients to be able to earn more before benefits are cut.

On whether the Coalition will oppose the promotion of a job seeker, Hume says they are optimistic the talks will see the government accept their amendments.

I think the government will see the light here. There’s a lot of value in giving people an incentive to work harder, get them out of this cycle of well-being, and get to work.

The coalition continues to attack the budget

shadow finance minister Jane Humecontinues the attack of the Coalition on the budget of the Albanian government after the leader Peter Duttonofficial budget response last night.

Speaking to ABC News this morning, Hume accused the budget of being inflationary, citing a tax on farmers (via the biosafety levy) and a tax on truck drivers that would combine to drive up food prices.

Foreign Ministry says China ready to work with Australia on ‘common understanding’

WITH Minister of Commerce Don Farrell arrived in China for negotiations aimed at lifting trade sanctions, Beijing’s official representative for foreign affairs, Wang Wenbinjournalists asked about the visit at a daily media conference at night.

Wang said that Australia and China are important countries in the Asia-Pacific region with “very complementary economies and mutually beneficial business ties.”

He added that China is “ready to work together with Australia to implement the important common agreements reached by our leaders, build mutual trust, deepen cooperation, properly resolve differences, and work for the sustainable, healthy and sustainable development of bilateral relations”:

Improving and maintaining the healthy growth of bilateral ties serves the fundamental interests of both countries and peoples…both sides can find a balanced way to solve each other’s problems on economic and trade issues through constructive consultations for the benefit of both peoples. .

Natasha May

Good morning! Thanks Martin for the start, I’ll be with you until lunch.

Daniel Hirst

Daniel Hirst

“Peace Through Strength”

Army Commander, Lieutenant General Simon Stewartspoke after meeting with his American counterpart General James McConvillein Canberra.

McConville said he visited Australia to discuss issues of mutual interest, strengthen the alliance and secure “peace through force”.

In response to a question regarding China’s missile technology, Stewart said:

We want to make sure that there are credible capabilities between us as like-minded allies, because those are indeed at the core of deterrence.

But our goal is very clearly to make sure that the rules of the road of the free and open Indo-Pacific, so to speak, are maintained. None of this is directed at anyone. – all aimed at ensuring that the rules of the road, which have served everyone very, very well, regionally and globally, since the end of World War II, are maintained.

Because Conflicts and wars come at a terrible human cost. and the price, and we are well aware of this, and every day we do our best together and with our regional partners to prevent conflict.

The army commander defends the shake-up on the defensive

Daniel Hirst

Daniel Hirst

The army commander vowed to “accomplish the task assigned to us” amid political controversy over government cuts to infantry fighting vehicles.

Lieutenant General Simon Stewart said the army was “absolutely on the right track” and would faithfully follow the government’s “very clear direction” after a strategic defense review.

Instead of purchasing up to 450 infantry fighting vehicles worth up to $27 billion, the government will acquire just 129 units as part of a reprioritization.

opposition leader, Peter Duttonsaid last night in a budget response speech that the decision “leaves our troops and our new strike force more vulnerable and lowers morale.”

Speaking to reporters at Defense Headquarters in Canberra late last night, Stewart said he was “really encouraged by the trajectory” of the army’s modernization, though he acknowledged the change in direction:

Looking at the changes in our strategic environment and understanding the changes we will need to make to our force structure and our capabilities, it is slightly different from the trajectory we have been on.

Stewart pointed to other benefits to the Army, including the ability to deliver precision strikes over long distances and a greater ability to operate in coastal areas, as a result of strategic analysis:

Speaking of which part of the army that can do close combat on land and among the population – combined arms combat system – if you look at the capabilities that we will be able to put up very soon, this is world class and much more capabilities than we had in the history of the Australian army.

So I’m pretty excited in terms of the possibilities. another we are very, very focused on our mission.


Good morning and welcome to another day of live news. V Martin Farrer and I’m here to let you know the main night lines in front of my colleague Natasha May included

The Albanian government is flirting heavily with the Greens over the housing bill, and its approval of the development of a coal mine in Queensland’s Bowen Basin will not lose love. Tanya Plibersek indicated that she was going to green-light the Isaac River scheme – the first such approval since Labor took over – drawing widespread criticism from environmental activists.

We also have an amazing story of management consultants advising aged care providers to use the system based on which tenants are generating “higher returns” and urging them to “get their money now” before new ones are introduced. rules. Mirus Australia warns that the reclassification of residents for declining health, which will increase the number of mandatory minutes of care, could hurt the provider’s budget, as the increase in subsidies will not cover the costs.

Peter Dutton used his budgetary response to criticize ADF reforms, among other things, but the army commander vowed to “accomplish the task we have been given” amid political controversy over government cuts to infantry fighting vehicles. Lieutenant General Simon Stewart says the army is “absolutely on the right track” and will faithfully follow the government’s “very clear direction” after the defense strategy review.

We also cannot ignore the Eurovision performance currently taking place in Liverpool. Will the Australian entry from Perth band Voyager make it to the final? Naturally, it’s all about the incredibly confusing voting system.

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