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Amazon’s Jeff Bezos Will Help NASA Get Back to the Moon



Artwork: The Blue Moon lander will be 16m tall and weigh more than 45 tons fully fueled.

The US space agency has hired a second billionaire to help send astronauts to the moon.

NASA is already working with Elon Musk’s SpaceX on a descent system based on its new Starship rocket, which will land as early as 2025.

It has now also secured a contract with founder Jeff Bezos to build a landing craft that will take crews to the surface of the moon later this decade.

His Blue Origin company will produce a more traditional car.

Mr. Bezos will be assisted by some of the well-established names in the US aerospace sector, including Lockheed Martin, Boeing, Draper and Astrobotic.

Blue Origin signed a contract with Dynetics and Northrop Grumman.

Mr. Bezos’ company, based in Kent, Washington, will receive just over $3.4bn (£2.7bn) from NASA as part of the contract. And the firm will spend “much more than $3.4 billion” of its own money on the project.

“We go to the moon to learn, to live, to invent, to create all these things, to succeed on the moon, to go to Mars,” said agency administrator Bill Nelson.

“The great adventure of mankind, striving for space, is already here. And that’s part of it.”

It’s been more than 50 years since humans last landed on the moon

It has been more than 50 years since astronauts last set foot on the moon.

NASA has developed a roadmap to achieve a more sustainable human presence on Earth’s natural satellite next time.

The Artemis program calls for weeks on the lunar surface, not days, as was the case in the 1960s and 70s.

SpaceX has been asked to send two astronauts to the south pole of the moon in late 2025 or 2026, and then again in 2028. These are the Artemis III and Artemis IV missions.

The 16m 45t Blue Origin vehicle is called the Blue Moon. This will do the job on Artemis V, which should happen no earlier than 2029.

“Before the first crew landing occurs, we will land an exact replica of this lander before that – a year before that. So we will be testing the complete lander systems and the complete architecture before any astronauts board the vehicle,” he explained. John Coulouris, Blue Origin’s vice president of lunar transportation.

The lander could also be configured to simply deliver payload to the lunar surface — a minimum of 20 tons, the executive added.

Blue Origin plans to use its own rocket, known as the New Glenn, to launch Blue Moon from Earth (although that launcher has yet to make its debut flight). The dimensions of the descent vehicle are determined by the volume-mass parameters of the rocket, which has a cargo compartment 7 m wide.

Job: SpaceX Lunar Lander

Work: SpaceX will use a version of its Starship system that won the contract in 2021.

Artemis I already took place last November: NASA’s unmanned test of the rocket and capsule that will take astronauts to the moon. Artemis II is scheduled for next year and a crew of four will complete a simple loop around the moon.

For all manned missions, the idea is for the astronauts to transfer to special landing craft that will wait for them in lunar orbit. On these vehicles, they descended to the surface, completed reconnaissance and returned back.

By the end of the decade, NASA intends to make a transfer to a new space station above the moon called Gateway.

SpaceX received the contract in 2021. The company wants to use a variant of its massive next-generation Starship rocket system, which debuted four weeks ago.

The first flight was aborted four minutes later when the car got out of control. But SpaceX is already talking about a second launch this summer.

Starship readiness is one of the key factors that will determine whether NASA can continue with its Artemis program. Right now, many commentators consider the first crewed landing on the moon at the end of 2025 a very ambitious goal.


NASA’s Webb Space Telescope discovers water around mysterious main belt comet



NASA’s James Webb Space Telescope has helped astronomers find gas around a comet in the main asteroid belt for the first time.

In a press release, the agency said the presence of water vapor was confirmed using the observatory’s near-infrared spectrograph instrument.

The findings indicate that water ice from the early solar system, which formed about 4.5 billion years ago, may be preserved in the region.

However, unlike other comets, scientists have stated that comet 238P/Read does not contain carbon dioxide.


An artist’s concept of comet 238P/Read shows the main belt comet sublimating, its water ice evaporating as it orbits the Sun. Sublimation is what distinguishes comets from asteroids, creating their characteristic tail and hazy halo. (NASA, ESA)

“Our water-drenched world, teeming with life and unique in the universe, to our knowledge, is something of a mystery — we’re not sure how all that water got here,” Stephanie Milam, Associate Scientist for Planetary Science at the Webb Project. and co-author of the study reporting the discovery, published in the journal Nature, the statement explains.

“Understanding the history of the distribution of water in the solar system will help us understand other planetary systems and see if they might be on their way to creating an Earth-like planet,” she said.

A comet is an object that is found in the main asteroid belt and periodically displays a halo and tail like a comet.

These main belt comets are a fairly new classification, and Comet Reed was one of three comets used to establish this category.

Prior to this classification, comets were known to be outside the orbit of Neptune, where ice could persist further from our Sun.

emission spectrum data

This graphical representation of the spectral data highlights key similarities and differences between the 2022 observations of Comet 238P/Read by NASA’s James Webb Space Telescope Near-Infrared Spectrograph and those of Comet 103P/Hartley 2 by NASA’s Deep Impact mission in 2010. show a distinct peak in the region of the spectrum associated with water. (NASA, ESA, CSA and J. Olmsted (STScI))


The frozen material that evaporates as comets approach the sun is what distinguishes them from asteroids, giving them their characteristic halo and tail.

Scientists have previously speculated that water ice might persist in the warmer asteroid belt – inside the orbit of Jupiter – but NASA said the evidence has so far been elusive.

Comet in the night sky

This image of Comet 238P/Read was taken by NASA’s James Webb Space Telescope Near Infrared Camera on September 8, 2022. The dusty coma and tail are the result of the evaporation of ice as the sun heats the main body of the comet. (NASA, ESA, CSA, M. Kelley/University of Maryland | Image Processing: H. Hsieh/Planetary Science Institute), A. Pagan (STScI)

“Thanks to Webb’s observations of Comet Reed, we can now demonstrate that water ice from the early solar system can persist in the asteroid belt,” said University of Maryland astronomer Michael Kelly, lead author of the study.


The lack of carbon dioxide, which typically makes up about 10% of the volatiles in a comet, has two possible explanations presented by the researchers.

“Being in the asteroid belt for long periods of time can do this – carbon dioxide evaporates more easily than water ice and can seep out over billions of years,” Kelly suggested, also suggesting that Comet Reed could have formed in a particularly warm part of the planet. A solar system where there was no carbon dioxide.

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Paleontologists have discovered a new species of spinosaurus dinosaur



A new genus and species of spinosaurid dinosaur, named Protathlitis cinctorrensis, was discovered by Dr. John Wilson. Andres Santos-Cubedo of Jaume I University and colleagues.

The post Paleontologists discover new spinosaurian dinosaur species first appeared on Sci.News: Breaking Science News.

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5 best psychological theories of Sigmund Freud



This article was originally published on May 6, 2022.

When we tell our friends about a crazy dream we had with them, or when we use terms like ego and free association, we are referring to Sigmund Freud.

More than 80 years after his death, Freud’s theories about the human unconscious and how it affects our behavior continue to permeate Western culture. Freud’s pioneering psychological theories, presented to the world at the turn of the 20th century, changed our understanding of the human mind. His theories have influenced not only psychological theory, but also the way we behave in everyday life, in the family and at work. life.

Freud’s psychoanalytic theory

Terms like sleep analysis, free association, Oedipus complexthe Freudian slip and the ubiquitous ego, and id and superegowoven into much of what we do, think and say.

1. Sleep analysis

In modern society, we often talk about our dreams. If you google “dream quotes” there seems to be an endless supply of them. From bestselling author Erma Bombeck’s joke, “It takes a lot of guts to show your dreams to someone else,” to the American rapper and actor, Tupac Shakur lyrics, “Reality is wrong. Dreams are real.” But it is Freud who reveals what a dream is – an alternative reality that we experience when we sleep.

“The interpretation of dreams is the royal road to knowledge of the unconscious activities of the mind,” writes Freud.

Freud’s theory of dreams and his book The Interpretation of Dreams., were revolutionary. Before its publication in 1899, scientists considered dreams to be “meaningless”. Freud believed that dreams were “the disguised fulfillment of repressed childhood desires”.

While popular culture has taken Freud’s theories and applied their meaning – for example, dreams about flying mean that you are subconsciously thinking about ambition – Freud never wrote a dream dictionary. In fact, he shied away from such specifics. He insisted that although dreams are symbolic, they are specific to the individual and cannot be defined in general for the entire society.

2. Free association

Freud’s dream theories directly influenced his free association theory. Based on the theory that dreams and their meanings are individual, Freud allowed his patients to interpret their dreams for themselves, instead of giving them their own opinion. He called his process free association. With each new feature of a dream during a psychoanalytic session, Freud suggested that his patients relax and—to use a modern term—spit out what they thought it meant. Patients threw out ideas as they came, no matter how trivial they might be.

3. Reports on Freud

One of the most popular phrases from Freud’s theories: Freudian slip. He believed that a “slip of the tongue” – when we say something that we are not going to say – shows what we are thinking, subconsciously. Freud presented his theory of the Freudian slip in his 1901 book. Psychopathology of everyday life, and suggested that these verbal (and sometimes written) errors were rooted in “unconscious urges” and “unexpressed desires”. In addition, Freud believed that the inability to remember something – for example, someone’s address or name – is due to our need or desire to suppress it. Modern science has yet to explain why Freudian slips happen.

4. Oedipus complex, penis envy and womb envy

Experts believe Oedipus complex, psychosexual theory, as Freud’s most controversial theory. According to Freud, this is an unconscious desire that begins at the phallic stage of development, between the ages of three and six. The child is sexually attracted to its parent of the opposite sex and is jealous of its parent of the same sex.

Popular culture uses the Oedipus complex as a general term for the phase for both boys and girls. But Freud postulated that boys experience an Oedipus complex and girls an Electra complex. This is when a girl unconsciously becomes sexually attached to her father and is hostile to her mother.

Freud believed that the Oedipus complex was “the central phenomenon of the sexual period of early childhood”, but there is no scientific evidence to support his theory.

“Penis envy” grew out of Freud’s theory of the Oedipus complex, and Freud published it in 1908. Freud believed that a woman’s realization that she does not have a penis leads to intense envy, which underlies female behavior.

“Freud claimed that the only way to overcome this penis envy was to have a child of his own, and even went so far as to suggest that he wanted a male child in his efforts to gain a penis,” the researcher writes. British Psychological Society. Psychoanalyst Karen Horney, a contemporary of Freud whose theories led to the feminist psychology movement, saw penis envy as purely symbolic.

Horney postulated that envy, not of the phallus itself, but of the envy of the penis, had more to do with a woman’s position in society and “the desire for social prestige and position that men experience.” Thus, women felt inferior because of the freedom and social status they lacked because of their gender, and not because of their literal lack of a phallus,” the author writes. British Psychological Society.

In addition, Horney introduces the term “womb envy” and explains that men are negatively affected by their inability to have children and envy the “biological functions of the female sex”, including breastfeeding and pregnancy.

5. Ego, Id and Superego

Somebody think human psyche as the most enduring psychoanalytic theory in Freud’s career. Freud published his personality theory in 1923, which hypothesizes that the human psyche is divided into three parts – the ego, the id, and the superego. And they all develop at different stages of our lives. It is important to note that Freud believed that these are not physical objects in our brains, but rather “systems”.

While the word “ego” is used much more frequently in popular culture than “id” and “superego”, the three are related. According to Freud, the id is the most primitive part of the human psyche. This is the basis of our sexual and aggressive urges. The superego is our moral compass, and the ego is the judge, if you will, between the pulls of the id and the superego.

Freud’s psychological theories remain in our subconscious and consciousness

The next time you wake up from a strange dream that you can tell your best friend in detail, he will respond: “Oh, snakes? This dream is all about penis envy.” Or your boss yells at you and you mutter under your breath, “Too ego.” Or you are killing time on a long car ride and throwing away words and free associations – you have to thank Freud. And, if you’re looking for a reason to pay tribute to Freud and all of his contributions to our folk, pop culture and therapy, consider raising a toast to the father of psychoanalysis. He was born on May 6, 1856.

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